Manuals and reference materials


Appendix C to AHRI Standard 700-2014

The intent of this normative appendix is to establish definitive test procedures for determining the quality of new, reclaimed and/or repackaged refrigerants for use in new and existing equipment within the scope of AHRI.

BRA updates its replacement refrigerant report

The updated edition was announced in January 2018. The first PURR (Putting into Use Replacement Refrigerants) report was produced in 2015 by members of BRAbrapurr to help the industry meet some of the key implications and requirements of the EU F Gas regulation that came into force on 1st January 2015; in particular the urgent need to move away from high GWP refrigerants, such as R404A.

Legislative and policy options to control hydrofluorocarbons

UN Environment OzonAction is assisting all developing countries (Article 5 under the Montreal Protocol) through its networks of National Ozone Officers (146 developing countries), clearinghouse and capacity-building activities to implement their national hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) phase-out. OzonAction supports efforts to phase out HCFCs, adopt non-ozone depleting, non global warming and energy-efficient alternatives in a safe and sustainable manner, ultimately protecting our common global property – the Earth’s ozone layer.

International standards in refrigeration and air-conditioning

With the phase-out of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer progressing, the introduction of alternatives with not only zero ozone depleting potential (ODP) but also low global warming potential (GWP) and improved energy efficiency is becoming an issue of increasing importance, especially in developing countries.

Good servicing practices: Phasing out HCFCs in the refrigeration and air-conditioning servicing sector

In recent years, ozone depletion efforts have primarily focused on the obligatory phasing out of ozone depleting substances (ODS). However, in 2013, Decision XIX/6 at the 19th Meeting of the Parties highlighted the importance of climate and energy-efficiency as related to HCFC phaseout. In order to achieve reduction of both ODS and GHG emissions, attention must be paid to activities at a microlevel. This includes reducing leakage rates, adopting good service practices, improving energy-efficiency and preventing adverse environmental impacts during equipment servicing and maintenance.

Pre-charged equipment FAQs

Contractors’ group AREA has produced a document explaining the legal responsibilities of those buying or selling pre-charged equipment under the European F-gas regulations.

F-gas regulation shaking up the HVAC&R industry

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases globally, but also one of the areas where climate-friendly, energy-efficient alternatives, such as natural refrigerants, are readily available for a growing number of applications. In 2014, the EU took regulatory action to limit the use of these gases through a combination of measures. The EU F-Gas Regulation, which entered into force in 2015, is rapidly changing the face of European industry and influencing markets beyond Europe’s borders.

Global Warming Potential (GWP) of Refrigerants: Why are Particular Values Used? (post Kigali update)

Ever since the Montreal Protocol agreed to phase out hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), there has been an increasing interest within the Protocol on climate issues. Decision XIX/6, taken in 2007, to adjust the Protocol to accelerate the phase out of HCFCs includes language to encourage the promotion of alternatives that minimise environmental impacts, in particular impacts on climate, as well as to prioritise funding for projects, inter alia, which focus on substitutes and alternatives that minimise other impacts on the environment, including on the climate, taking into account global-warming potential (GWP).

Refrigerant Blends: Calculating Global Warming Potentials (post Kigali update)

The number of single component refrigerants with different thermodynamic properties suitable for different types of equipment is limited. Growing demand for refrigeration and air-conditioning with diversified applications has led to a continued search for suitable refrigerant blends. A number of such blends have been developed by mixing two or more single component refrigerants in different proportions. The resulting blend, has entirely different properties from that of its components.

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol: HFC Phase-down

The Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer reached agreement at their 28th Meeting of the Parties on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda to phase-down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HFCs are commonly used alternatives to ozone depleting substances (ODS). While not ozone depleting substances themselves, HFCs are greenhouse gases which can have high or very high global warming potentials (GWPs), ranging from about 121 to 14,800.