HVAC

F-gas regulation shaking up the HVAC&R industry

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases globally, but also one of the areas where climate-friendly, energy-efficient alternatives, such as natural refrigerants, are readily available for a growing number of applications. In 2014, the EU took regulatory action to limit the use of these gases through a combination of measures. The EU F-Gas Regulation, which entered into force in 2015, is rapidly changing the face of European industry and influencing markets beyond Europe’s borders.

The future of air conditioning for buildings

This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions.

Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants project was aimed to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

Commercial CO2 refrigeration systems guide for subcritical and transcritical CO2 applications. Emerson climate technologies

CO2 is termed a “Natural Refrigerant” because it exists in the natural environment. Release into the atmosphere from refrigeration systems has a negligible effect compared to other CO2 sources that are driving the global warming debate. As a refrigerant, it is a manufactured product that conforms to strict purity specifications. Its physical properties require special handling.

Guidelines for the use of hydrocarbon refrigerants in static refrigeration and air conditioning systems

With the introduction of the revised EU Ozone Depleting Substances Regulation and the introduction of a Climate Change Policy by the UK Government, it is considered likely that more refrigeration system designers and users will be turning to alternative refrigerants such as hydrocarbons. The increased application of this technology will bring with it many technical and safety issues.

Guideline for life cycle climate performance

Climate change is an increasingly important global concern with far reaching effects. The heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry is allotting a significant amount of effort to reduce the environmental impacts of HVAC&R systems. Discussions about the climate impact is often limited to the GWP of the fluids used, but this is far too restrictive, as it does not take into account the real emissions of fluids, and ignores indirect emissions, especially those related to energy use over the life time of the equipment.

Practical guide for certification of technicians in refrigeration and air conditioning

This practical guide is designed to improve the skills and knowledge of professionals in the refrigeration sector that need to be certified in accordance with the requirements of the EEU (Eurasian Economic Union). The guide contains basic information on refrigeration equipment, main components of the refrigeration system, Besides, it provides information on commercial, industrial and mobile air conditioners, transport refrigeration, brazing of pipes of the refrigeration system, etc.