Publications


Different Effects on Evaporator Temperatur

It is not uncommon, when doing trainings on metering devices in general, but specifically it seems with TXV’s that there is a perception that the TXV is responsible for controlling the temperature in the evaporator. Lets look at a TXV equipped system and how it behaves.

Ammonia/CO2 south of the border

Mexican cold-storage operator Frialsa is leading its country’s adoption of NH3 /CO2 systems that are safer and 15%-20% more energy efficient than conventional ammonia equipment.

OEMs flock to hydrocarbons in U.S.

Myriad manufacturers of commercial refrigeration have made the move to propane and isobutane inorder to meet the DOE’s new efficiency standards– and prepare for the EPA’s refrigerant changes.

Refrigerant options now and in the future

One hundred eighty years have passed since Jacob Perkins patented the vapor compression cycle, which also launched the history of refrigerants. The vapor compression cycle uses the refrigerant to transport heat from the cold side to the hot side of a refrigeration system, heat pump, or air conditioning system. We, essentially, use the same thermodynamic cycle today, however, the refrigerants have changed throughout time.

Climate change and its significance for refrigeration technology

Climate change, greenhouse effect and global warming – scarcely any other issue is so omnipresent and so controversially discussed in the 21st century. Those who are convinced in doubting that climate change is man-made refer to various eras in the history of our planet where the earth has heated up or cooled down drastically even without any contribution on our part. In future too, they see climate change as the result of natural causes, including among others a changed ellipsoid orbit of the earth around the sun.

Natural refrigerants: current developments and trends

The decision as to which refrigerant should be used in a refrigerating or air-conditioning system is based on the major criteria of safety, costs and environment protection. But against the background of constantly increasing energy prices, the energy consumption of a system also plays an increasingly important role. Ideally, the chosen refrigerant should have excellent thermodynamic properties, high chemical stability and good physical characteristics. Furthermore, it should have no or only a negligible impact on the environment, while also being inexpensive and available worldwide.

Low-GWP alternatives in commercial refrigeration

The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) currently operates a 117,000-square foot commissary in San Antonio, Texas. The store is located in the community service area of the Lackland Air Force Base and is surrounded by other retail stores, banks, schools, and housing.

Refrigerants: changes are coming. Now is the time for facility managers to start looking to the future

Facility managers count on efficient, safe refrigerant solutions to provide cost-effective comfort to building occupants. Today, future refrigerant options are being discussed. Alternative refrigerants are under development; a few are already on the market. With an upcoming refrigerant transition, now is the time for facility managers to learn about what’s changing and why. Facility managers who educate themselves now will be in a better position to make the best equipment choices in the future based on refrigerant safety, efficiency, reliability, cost, and availability.

Fun with Hydrocarbons

I was going to call this post „Playing With Fire“ but didn’t for obvious reasons. Anyways, in my last post we saw how CO2 (R744) can be used in both a traditional sub-critical as well as in trans-critical cycles which operate almost backwards to each other. Also, when I typed in trans-critical without the hyphen, Spell Wreck asked me if I meant to type ‚transatlantic‘ instead. Um no, but it did remind me of a little bit of history to touch on before we move onto R290. I apologize for the digression but I think you will find it interesting.

Kysor/Warren’s different path

Kysor/Warren, a division and brand of global refrigeration equipment maker Heatcraft Worldwide Refrigeration, is optimistic that deployment of natural refrigerant technologies will expand in the U.S., but the company admits there are some obstacles to overcome.

The Montreal protocol. To coldly go

The world’s most lauded environmental treaty could be about to notch up a new success. In 1974 scientists discovered that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS), chemicals used in refrigeration and as propellants in products such as hairsprays, release chlorine into the stratosphere as they decompose. This depletes the ozone that protects Earth from ultraviolet radiation. CFCS are also powerful greenhouse gases, which absorb solar radiation reflected back from the planet’s surface and so trap heat in the atmosphere.

New low GWP synthetic refrigerants

In this project, two newly developed refrigerants, R1234yf and R1234ze have been studied as promising drop-in replacements for the common high global warming potential refrigerants. In view of that, thermodynamic and transport properties of new refrigerants were obtained by RefProp version 7.01 to study and compare their cycle performances with current refrigerants.

Hydrocarbons as refrigerants

A developed society cannot function without refrigeration. At home, in food production and storage (e.g. frozen foods, yogurt, and or coffee), in the production processes of the automotive or chemical-pharmaceutical industry, or for air conditioning – wherever you look, „cooling“ is essential. Industrially generated „coldness“ is a central pillar of modern life. In Germany, 14 % of the primary energy consumed is used for cooling purposes. Negative influences on the environment can be reduced by using natural refrigerants.

Remarks at the Montreal Protocol High-level Segment

And I want to express my personal gratitude for the opportunity to be able to share a few thoughts with everybody. I am really honored to be here. I’m delighted to be here. And I want to thank the president of this Meeting of the Parties, Extraordinary Meeting of the Parties, Canada’s Director General for Environment and Climate Change Virginia Poter, as well as Minister Rupprechter and the Government of Austria for hosting yet again another series of critical diplomatic talks.