Manuals and reference materials


F-gas regulation shaking up the HVAC&R industry

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases globally, but also one of the areas where climate-friendly, energy-efficient alternatives, such as natural refrigerants, are readily available for a growing number of applications. In 2014, the EU took regulatory action to limit the use of these gases through a combination of measures. The EU F-Gas Regulation, which entered into force in 2015, is rapidly changing the face of European industry and influencing markets beyond Europe’s borders.

Global Warming Potential (GWP) of Refrigerants: Why are Particular Values Used? (post Kigali update)

Ever since the Montreal Protocol agreed to phase out hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), there has been an increasing interest within the Protocol on climate issues. Decision XIX/6, taken in 2007, to adjust the Protocol to accelerate the phase out of HCFCs includes language to encourage the promotion of alternatives that minimise environmental impacts, in particular impacts on climate, as well as to prioritise funding for projects, inter alia, which focus on substitutes and alternatives that minimise other impacts on the environment, including on the climate, taking into account global-warming potential (GWP).

Refrigerant Blends: Calculating Global Warming Potentials (post Kigali update)

The number of single component refrigerants with different thermodynamic properties suitable for different types of equipment is limited. Growing demand for refrigeration and air-conditioning with diversified applications has led to a continued search for suitable refrigerant blends. A number of such blends have been developed by mixing two or more single component refrigerants in different proportions. The resulting blend, has entirely different properties from that of its components.

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol: HFC Phase-down

The Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer reached agreement at their 28th Meeting of the Parties on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda to phase-down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HFCs are commonly used alternatives to ozone depleting substances (ODS). While not ozone depleting substances themselves, HFCs are greenhouse gases which can have high or very high global warming potentials (GWPs), ranging from about 121 to 14,800.

The future of air conditioning for buildings

This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions.

AREA guide “Equipment for refrigerants with lower (A2L) and higher (A3) flammability”

In the future we will see more alternative refrigerants to HFCs due to the EU F-gas Regulation and future international phase-down of High Global Warming Potential Substances. To lower global warming impact it is necessary to have a less stable molecule as a refrigerant, which means that the substance becomes flammable. The equipment and the tools for installation, maintenance and repair of future equipment containing flammable low GWP refrigerants need to be properly handled by competent personnel.

AREA F-gas guide

Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases aims at reducing emissions of these gases through a variety of measures: rules on containment, use, recovery and destruction of fluorinated greenhouse gases, conditions on the placing on the market of certain types of products or equipment containing or relying upon fluorinated greenhouse gases (bans), specific uses of these gases (service ban), quantitative limits for the placing on the market of HFCs (phase-down). In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to revise Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases. This revision resulted in Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006. It was published in the Official Journal of the EU on 20th May 2014 and entered into force on 9th June 2014. The new Regulation are applicable from 1st January 2015.

BITZER: Refrigerant report 19

Stratospheric ozone depletion as well as atmospheric greenhouse effect due to refrigerant emissions have led to drastic changes in the refrigeration and air conditioning technology since the beginning of the 1990s.